EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING, FINANCE & BUSINESS

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ISSN: 2344 - 102X

ISSN-L: 2344 - 102X



 

Volume 10, Number 3, Year 2022

1. DISCONTINUITY OF DIGITAL PLATFORMS
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Author(s): Cristina Gabriela Cosmulese
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1031
Abstract: The structure of contemporary capitalism is characterized by the contextual presence of three platforms that are driving the transformation of economic and social relations: industry, logistics and the digital economy. These three platforms show increasing degrees of intersection, generating a general reorganization of the way capitalism works. The content of jobs is changing, the precariousness of rights is increasing and people's sensitive data is becoming a marketing tool. In the meantime, economic actors are increasingly taking oligopolistic and monopolistic forms, which regulation cannot regulate precisely because of the transnational dimension of networks Logistics, and in particular, the maritime economy is an elective terrain for these global transformation processes, where the convergence between the three platforms becomes particularly evident. This paper discusses the discontinuity between production and logistics induced by digitization and the challenges facing digital sustainability, by identifying factors contributing to the generation of negative environmental impacts through uncontrolled electricity consumption.
Keywords: Digital Sustainability; Sustainable Green Energy; Waste; Environment

2. COMPANY PERSONNEL - FROM THE SALARY TO ACCOUNTING
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Author(s): Lucia Morosan - Danila, Emanuela - Marinela Fercal
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1032
Abstract: The activity of the personnel within the companies is a vital one, involving complex activities and procedures, starting from the necessity of hiring, attracting the right people, placing them at the working place and then managing and remunerating them. This paper aims to present theoretical and practical aspects regarding the remuneration of staff of private companies in Romania, based on the analysis of specialized literature, legislation in the field of work and taxation. The case study presents an example of a service company in Romania, starting from the personnel hiring procedures, their salaries and the recording of the accounting operations involved. The importance of personnel salaries must be recognized as a form of fair remuneration for work, employee motivation, increasing the standard of living of employees, maintaining and increasing the profitability of the company, etc.
Keywords: Employee Accounting; Payroll; Personnel; Salary.

3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECO-ECONOMIC RELATIONS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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Author(s): Natalia Antoci, Alexei Chirtoca
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1033
Abstract: The requirement to meet environmental needs started to take center stage in the economy and the human consumer value system in the last two decades of the twenty-first century. At all stages of its development, society relies on the use of natural resources to produce goods and services. This makes it difficult to simultaneously maintain the rate of economic growth and minimise the negative consequences of anthropogenic impacts on nature. In this respect, the aim of state management authorities is to create a reliable and efficient mechanism ready to provide a balanced solution to economic and environmental protection problems in order to meet the vital needs of the population. This becomes particularly important for ensuring the sustainable social development of any country, including the Republic of Moldova. In this context, the subject of the scientific article is the issue of preserving the environment and assuring the growth of the eco-economic systems.
Keywords: Eco-economic System, Subsystem, Sustainable Development, Environment

4. COMPARISON OF THE COST OF ROAD TRANSPORT OF GOODS IN ROMANIA AND GERMANY
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Author(s): Claudia - Elena Grigoras - Ichim, Alexandra - Valentina Petrescu
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1034
Abstract: Internal an international transport is one of the main activities of the economy. The development of this field has been permanent and growing compared to other areas that have had ups and downs. During the COVID-19 pandemic (and continuing in some European countries with the war in Ukraine), when many company stopped their activity, the transport was not stopped, only certain rules were imposed that had to be observed. The paper presents theoretical and legislative aspects related to the road transport of goods and are made comparations between Germany and Romania in terms of: competition in the transport economy, the chosen transport category, the cost of a transport, the time spent in traffic and the payments made to drivers for the effort made. Although the two countries are extremely different geographically, legislatively and fiscally, Romanian transport companies prefer to provide their services in Germany, which is why a continuous analysis of these aspects is needed.
Keywords: Cost Calculation, Road Transport Of Goods, Transport Price

5. INNOVATION STRATEGY: KEY FEATURE OF SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODELS
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Author(s): Alexandra - Maria Danilet
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1035
Abstract: In the business environment there is an increased interest in developing enterprises that are innovative and manage to be competitive in times that are more and more turbulent. In this context, we should take into consideration the fact that the competitivity of a business organization is highly influenced by the entire ecosystem created by the knowledge, key competences, a certain organisational culture and also the strategies implemented by the top management. Regarding these elements, we state that the innovation strategy as a vector for innovation management represents an issue highly influenced by the top management vision on the long-term development that can be achieved through innovation. The strategies implemented by the management are essential in achieving and maintaining the position on a certain market. Even though there is a common interest in finding the key to success, the way to it is different for each business organization because it is quite difficult to develop a pattern that can be easily followed by all the business organizations in order to achieve a high performance, aspect that is taken into consideration by academics and also by the business community.
Keywords: Innovation, Business Strategy, Business Models, Sustainable Development

6. PANDEMIC IN ROMANIA - FINANCIAL AND TAXATION MEASURES TAKEN DURING THE COVID-19 CRISIS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC ECONOMY
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Author(s): Cristina Elena Cazacu, Teodora Valentina Lica, Cristina Gabriela Cosmulese
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1036
Abstract: The outbreak of the Pandemic caused not only a global health crisis but also a strong economic crisis. This paper aims to present the main financing programs adopted at the European level to counter the effects of the pandemic and the effects of these programs on the main macroeconomic indicators of Romania: twin deficits (budget deficit and current account deficit), public debt, evolution of budget revenues and expenditures, economic growth and labor market evolution. The research was conducted between 2019-2021 and is based on analysis of the data collected on Eurostat, INSSE and BNR. The study concludes that the negative impact of the pandemic crisis was significantly mitigated by the funds provided by the EU, but due to the economic context in which Romania was at the onset of the crisis, characterized by a high budget deficit, the return to economic growth will be a long and difficult process.
Keywords: Pandemic; National Budget; Public Debt; Economic Growth; GDP

7. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BUDGETING ACTIVITY IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
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Author(s): Camelia - Catalina Mihalciuc, Emanuela Hutanu (trif), Svetlana Mihaila, Maria Grosu
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1037
Abstract: The general management accounting system is now outdated because the information generated by the system arrives too late or too distorted to be relevant to managers' planning and control decisions, moreover, the system is based on simplistic and arbitrary methods and fails to reflect accurate product costs. Entities use managerial accounting techniques, which include both financial and non-financial information, as tools in obtaining useful information throughout the technological processes. By using these methods, the aim is to ensure efficiency in the operations carried out. The present work has as its main objective, the detailed highlighting of the role of cost calculation in the substantiation of managerial decisions, but also of the process of drawing up budgets elaborated at the company level in order to optimize profit and to substantiate optimal decisions.
Keywords: Costs; Cost Calculation; Management Accounting Practice; Budgets; Managerial Decision

8. AUDITORS' INDEPENDENCE, AUDIT TENURESHIP, FIRM CHARACTERISTICS AND AUDIT QUALITY: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA
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Author(s): Ruth Odin, David Jerry Oziegbe
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1038
Abstract: This study aims to empirically examine the effect of auditors' independence, audit tenureship, firm characteristics on audit quality in Nigeria. The population of the study comprises a sample of ten (10) listed pharmaceutical companies listed on the Nigerian Exchange Group (NGX). The time period for the study covers audited financial statements of the companies from 2013-2019. The study focused on two explanatory variables: auditors' independence and audit tenure, and two control variables: firm size and firm age. While the dependent variable audit quality was proxied by big four firms and non-big four firms. The secondary source of data was adopted in this study. The data collected were analyzed using panel regression techniques. The results suggest that all the explanatory and control variables have a positive and significant effect on audit quality. The study recommends that auditors' independence is directly proportional to audit quality, thus audit firms should be independent in order to enhance audit quality. Auditor-client engagement should not exceed 3 years to avoid familiarity threat. In addition, firms are advised to engage the services of one of the big audit firms since it results in improved audit quality. Younger firms should understudy older firms to learn from the experiences that they have acquired over the years that impact positively on audit quality.
Keywords: Auditors Independence; Audit Quality; Audit Tenureship

9. THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN CONTROLLING AND MANAGEMENT - A PREREQUISITE FOR ACHIEVING OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES
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Author(s): Florin Boghean
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.1039
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify the determinants of the entity's long-term growth and progress. The paper aims to deepen and develop concepts such as control, performance management, information and decision making and to establish some delimitations related to management and financial accounting. The expansion of multiple education evolves in direct relation to the increase in scientific creativity, the increase in the efficiency of scientific research in general and the increase in economic efficiency in particular, in a unified whole that represents, simultaneously, science, education, culture, economic progress and social progress.
Keywords: Controlling; Management; Performance.

10. ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL RESULT OF ENTITIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE
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Author(s): Maria Grosu, Camelia - Catalina Mihalciuc, Oxana Munteanu (barfoi)
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.10310
Abstract: Performance is a concept often addressed in the specialized literature and in a broad sense it represents the final result obtained following the performance of an activity, associated either with a positive result or with the success achieved in a certain field. The supply of information that reflects the performance of entities is among the most important objectives of financial statements, so that by publishing them, entities meet the requirements of a diverse range of users. In Romania, the reference pillar in performance measurement or the basis for calculating many performance indicators was considered the accounting result that takes the form of profit. In the last decade, however, concepts such as overall result, return on investment or earnings per share have made their way into the performance measurement process. Starting from these considerations, through this paper, the authors aimed to carry out a study of the concepts of accounting result and global result, which aims at the results presented in the financial statements by the entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Since the concept of performance is a complex one, through the study carried out regarding the global result which involves the analysis of several incidence factors, the authors thus resorted to measuring the performance of the entities listed on the BSE, based on the key indicators, respectively: net result, global result. The analysis of the accounting and global result was carried out on the basis of the financial statements related to the year 2021 of a sample of entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, from the perspective of the informational value they have in measuring the performance of the entities of the sample used.
Keywords: Bucharest Stock Exchange; Profit And Loss Account: Performance; Accounting Result; Global Result (comprehensive Income).

11. CORRELATION BETWEEN NONCASH PAYMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: CASE OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
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Author(s): Ana Cirlan, Mariana Bunu
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.10311
Abstract: The paper contains the authors' research on the subject of impact of cashless payments on economic growth of the Republic of Moldova. By using regression was aimed to show off the relationship of GDP and non-cash payments. The economic effects of cashless payments and their impact on the growth of the national economy in current economic conditions are discussed. The data for calculation were taken from the National Bank of Moldova and from the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova. The analysis focuses on calculation of the level of the value of non-cash payments in GDP of the Republic of Moldova connected to the share of the non-observed economy in GDP. Data confirm a high level of that indicator, thus special enunciation is for the hypothesis that cashless payments contribute to the decrease of the unobserved economy. The linear relationship between non-cash payments and GDP of the Republic of Moldova was described and depicted.
Keywords: Cashless Payment Instruments; Economic Growth; Electronic Payment; Non-cash Payments; Unobserved Economy

12. TOYOTA MOTOR CO GLOBAL POSITION: VISION, PRUDENCE AND CONTINUOUS INNOVATION
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Author(s): Nicolae - Florin Prunau
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.10312
Abstract: Toyota Motor Corporation was and remains the most successful integration group compared to other keiretsu groups. This is because she took over the position of reformist, innovative and revolutionary leader in the organization of production and customer relations since the 1960s and has managed to maintain this position until now. The various strategies applied by Toyota Motor Corporation over its seven decades of existence present it as not only a car company, it is the car company to which all Japanese manufacturers refer, but also the American and European ones. Toyota tops the list of both Japanese carmakers and the entire automotive industry in the world in terms of sales and profits.
Keywords: Innovative; Integration; Revolutionary; Successful; Strategies

13. THE EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF SOCIAL CULTURAL EXPENDITURE FROM THE STATE BUDGET OF ROMANIA
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Author(s): Cristinel Ichim
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.10313
Abstract: Within the public expenditures from the state budget, we identify the category of public expenditures for social and cultural actions, the level of which largely depends on the quality of life of the citizens of a state. In this article, we propose to analyze the role and place of this category of expenses in the state budget. In the first part of the paper, I presented the concept of social and cultural expenses, after which I identified and analyzed the factors that influence their evolution and structure: demographic factors, political factors, social factors, economic factors and urbanization. The research continues with the analysis of the dynamics and structure of public expenses for social and cultural actions based on the most recent data available in the Statistical Yearbook of Romania and highlights the place that this category of expenses occupies within the public expenditure of the state budget of Romania. The analysis shows us the fact that in the period 2016-2020 the social and cultural expenses from the state budget had a constant increase both in nominal size and in real size occupying an important share in the total public expenditure from the state budget between 29.48% (in year 2016) and 39.55% (in 2019).
Keywords: State Budget; Public Expenditure; Social And Cultural Expenses; Health; Culture; Education; Social Assistance.

14. INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES FOR PROMOTING CASHLESS PAYMENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH
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Author(s): Ana Cirlan
DOI: 10.4316/EJAFB.2022.10314
Abstract: The dynamic development of the cashless payment system, the increase in their share due to cash payments, it would seem, demonstrates the organic transition of settlements in the world economy from the cash sphere to the non-cash one. However, many developed and developing countries at the legislative level stimulate an increase in the share of cashless payments in national economies, including through restrictions on the maximum amounts set for cash payments. This article will analyze international experiences with cashless payments and their effect on economic growth. Thus, various individual measures have been adopted at the international level to encourage electronic payments and replace cash ones. The solutions presented in this study are based on diverse applicability mechanisms, some based on mandatory implementation and others focused on incentives offered to consumers or traders. Therefore, the examples presented in this article illustrate the impact of different solutions on economic growth, the reduction of the dark economy, and the improvement of public budget receipts.
Keywords: Cashless Payments; Economic Growth; Electronic Payment; Cashless Payment Instruments.

 
     
     
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